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WATERMARK See PAPER

WAX TABLET See TABLET

WHITE VINE-STEM

Burney MS 289, f. 2 Burney MS 154, f. 46v Arundel MS 81, f. 2

The Italian humanists (see HUMANISTIC) developed a characteristic white vine-stem BORDER (termed bianchi girari). The motif originated in fifteenth-century Florence and spread northward throughout Europe, accompanying humanistic or CLASSICAL TEXTS. White vine-stem borders were conscious emulations of what were thought to be ANTIQUE manuscripts but were in fact Italian manuscripts of the twelfth century. The white vine was generally left as blank parchment.

WORKSHOP

Also known by the French term atelier, a workshop is a studio in which a number of artists work together, generally under a MASTER, either on a regular or ad hoc basis. The term also refers to a group of artists who work together and is sometimes used in this sense to denote the secular equivalent of the monastic SCRIPTORIUM during the GOTHIC and RENAISSANCE periods (and during ANTIQUITY as well). Artists working on the same project need not necessarily have belonged to a workshop, since they frequently lived in the same urban neighbourhood and might join together for a single commission. In the context of attributing a work of art to a particular artist, the term 'workshop product' is used when the art is in the style of a master, but is thought to have been executed by an assistant emulating that style. See also SCHOOL OF ILLUMINATION, SECULAR PRODUCTION, and STATIONER. See the illustration accompanying MASTER.

WRITTEN SPACE See DIMENSIONS.

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